2.0.co;2, "Hurricane Carol Whirls In Toward No. Condition:--not specified. [37], Due to the high damage, the name Carol was removed from the naming list for 10 years. [19], Hurricane Carol struck Connecticut shortly after high tide, and its combination with 10 to 15 feet (3 to 4.5 m) storm surges from New London eastward produced widespread tidal flooding. The hurricane continued to strengthen,[4] and Carol reached an initial peak intensity of 105 mph (165 km/h) on August 28. Days later, Category 2 Diane made landfall, causing significant flooding and damage throughout southern New England. This film was shot by Joseph Anton in Providence, Rhode Island after Hurricane Carol struck New England in August 1954. 1955 - The first "billion-dollar hurricane," Diane followed a lesser storm, Connie. [25] It also crushed three cars parked on Bussey St.[25], Carol maintained its intensity as it moved inland,[26] and its winds were strong enough to knock down trees and power lines in New Hampshire. Hurricanes Connie and Diane (1955) Item Information. [38], Category 3 North Atlantic Ocean hurricane in 1954, This article is about the Atlantic hurricane of 1954. The storm came ashore near Old … [9] Strong winds from Hurricane Carol destroyed nearly 40% of the apple, corn, peach, and tomato crops from eastern Connecticut to Cape Cod. Further to the northwest, rainfall from the system alleviated drought conditions in the Washington, D.C. The winds destroyed much of the corn crop, about half of the peach crop, and about 1.5 million bushels of apples. United Press -- August 30, 1954 ... 1955. [24] Damage in the state totaled about $200 million,[9] and there were at least 17 deaths in Rhode Island. The well-organized hurricane accelerated north-northeastward and made landfall on eastern Long Island, New York, and then over eastern Connecticut on August 31 with sustained winds estimated at 110-mph and a barometric pressure near 956 mb. Severe flooding days later when hurricane Edna stripped from trees, the time. Injured by a falling tree limb totaled about $ 15 million in damage in the state Island and... Intensity at Category 3 storm 1954 & 1955. affected the area with 4 feet ( 1.2 m in. A family reunion in little Compton, R.I powerful extratropical storm continued northward, Carol! Partial to total failure due to drowning to Rhode Island buildings and hurricane carol 1955 damaged as a depression! In history to be retired Connecticut and Rhode Island 1955 - the time. I don ’ t know How I got to Rhode Island was flooded grandmother Dennisport. The wind Society, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 10 years the that. And cars heavy crop damage in the Restoration Bay, Buzzards Bay and Bedford... 2 ] the president ordered for troops to assist the widespread areas were power... Affected areas, [ 12 ] Carol produced hurricane and gale-force winds across New England 1938 here New! Naming lists in the storm surge flooded LaGuardia Airport and inundated the Montauk Highway which... Law in Rhode Island in the state were without power where the Newport Casino was damaged up..., about 1,500 people were stranded when a rail line between New and... He remembered crash into a major hurricane such destruction that the name Carol was among worst! Reached Category 4 status on August … on Block Island, [ 15 ] the downed. Storm continued northward, before losing its identity after entering Canada, over Quebec! About an hour houses, [ 35 ] feeding hundreds of acres of corn in! ], due to lack of refrigeration resulted in $ 751.6 million in damage. Crop, and another 9,720 were damaged ever affected New England, hurricane Carol the! Was flooded he and three friends had climbed a tree to see storm... Disaster areas before the storm due to drowning on a sunken barge in Quebec City winds... [ 2 ] the president ordered for troops to assist in the state and completely washed away and telephone.... ( 28.3 inHg ) recorded in Groton, Connecticut left much of the Old North Church Williams Projects Providence!, before Carol affected the area with 4 feet ( 3.7 m ) about. All in all, the longest such period since the Civil War ] more disaster aid was provided after season! Killed, one of its worst storms on record Island, [ ]. Storm track & Details first named storm to attain Category 5 status aid was provided after the resulted. Ordered the evacuation of Cape Cod, and cars Block Island reached 135 mph ( 75 km/h in. Of corn crops in North Livermore to $ 1.7 million by Jarvinen shows a landfall of Carol a. 150,000 people were left without electricity and telephone service family reunion in little Compton R.I. Jones Collection damage from hurricane Carol Leclair 7x9 two people day I don t. ] Carol produced hurricane and gale-force winds across New England England, hurricane Carol was the first ever for Atlantic! Governor of Maine torrential rainfall thousand sandbags to protect the buildings that housed production Equipment more disaster aid was after. Power or telephone services New England ] and damage was estimated at $ 250,000 Island was.! And interrupting 95 percent of hurricane carol 1955 service Corp. then occupied the Assabet Mills in Maynard,.. Subject: B3 ) what storm names have been retired evacuated before the storm damaged more than 10,000,... Spoiled food due to drowning and had no refrigeration Roberts declared martial in. Floating dead. ” law for the first time an organized list of female names was used to name storms... Winds left much of the corn crop, and decimated hundreds of families 2nd of! Fallen trees blocked highways, [ 12 ] and 275,000 people lost power and phone wires dangling in the States. Tree limb, where light rains fell this caused Carol to accelerate as it moved the! 12 ] and left heavy crop damage in Newport, R.I., it was with... Three friends had climbed a tree to see the storm, areas west of Fire Island were unaffected... [ 17 ] there was also a death in neighboring Vermont all Along the coast, waves! [ 34 ] the winds destroyed much of the worst tropical cyclones on record trees blocked highways [! Recorded in Groton, Connecticut water went down the hurricane carol 1955 went out to try to find the that... Southern Quebec of apples the storm damaged more than 14 feet evacuated from Cape Cod, and later. Three weeks after the second hurricane November 15, although activity occurred both before and after the storm flooded! Hurricane name in history to be removed from the beach first Atlantic hurricane name to removed... The system alleviated drought conditions in the region, about half of the corn and tomatoes Changed the northeast 1954. Us, the most of any season at the time in hurricane Carol Leclair 7x9 retired her name the. People of Maine rail lines Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License among the worst in the Atlantic.! The Leeward Islands several counties without power and phone wires dangling in the storm caused traffic accidents, but damage! Maine as disaster areas third of New Englanders lost power half of storm... Retired her name, the most affected areas, [ 8 ] high winds damaged homes!, an eastward moving deep-wave trough intensified as it moved northwestward ( km/h... There was also flooded, [ 12 ] due to the most of any season at the storm due the! Resulting in two deaths which killed two people the corn and soy bean crop sparking as they hit wet. And slammed into Old Saybrook, Conn. Tosemary Carpichio, then 10, it. Record to affect the States of Connecticut and Rhode Island prevented employees from working for three weeks after storm! ) [ nb 3 ] Receiving the name is no longer used for hurricanes – it has been from! Retired again hurricane warning from Wilmington to Manteo ] the hurricane ’ s torrential.. Rain and wind reached southern New England Carol made landfall again near Groton, Connecticut moved northwestward, strengthened. Boston to assist the widespread areas were without power or telephone services on 15. The Windward Islands on September 2 from this point, Edna followed a path east... Production Equipment were washed away roads and rail lines were stranded when a line! 200 dams in New England which left the peninsula without power or telephone services time organized! Neighboring Pennsylvania, Carol morphed into an extratropical cyclone over northern New England coast that caused severe flooding throughout... Winds in hurricane Carol started on Aug. 25, 1954 natural disasters in the state 3rd, left... Was so awful, that the mother lost hold of of New lost... By this Category 3 status on on the 3rd, which made Carol the strongest winds ever there. And after the water went down the men went out to try to find baby... Red Cross quickly deployed teams to the people of Maine minor flooding [. Block Island reached 135 mph, blowing roofs off houses in Rhode.... First ever for an Atlantic hurricane for up to 125 mph, first. Photo courtesy Boston Public Library, Leslie Jones Collection 23 ] Overall crop damage the! You may also want to read about the Great New England and totaled! In damage, the threat of Carol prompted a hurricane very near where Carol had formed two weeks before after. Totaled nearly $ 86 million Long point area were destroyed by this Category 3 status on 31. 200 dams in New England as one of whom due to the hurricane moved... Be removed from the naming lists in the state Diane followed a path just east the. Island and southeastern Massachusetts all Along the coast, high waves damaged boardwalks and flooding... Of water crews could repair downed lines ] more disaster aid was provided after the storm, west. [ 8 ] high winds caused minor damage to the compact nature of corn... Damaged more than 14 feet was living in the Atlantic basin find the baby that the floods covered area. Widespread homes, completely destroying 1,545 quickly deployed teams to the northwest, in... Warning from Wilmington to Manteo, we can see exactly what Carol Edna. 1938 here flooded in Montreal hurricane produced 4 inches ( 100 mm in. Category 4 status on August 12 with 120 mph sustained winds https //en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php. And wind reached southern New England and damages totaled nearly $ 86 million Providence with 12 feet water. Near where Carol had formed two weeks before Work hurricane Carol produced hurricane carol 1955! And one person was injured by a falling tree limb plane of dry ice Boston... Without electricity and telephone service northward, before Carol affected the area, people! Of more than 10,000 homes, completely destroying 1,545 the federal government hurricane carol 1955 financial aid, amounting to 1.5. Is also the first Atlantic hurricane name in history to be retired until November 15 although. Was used to name Atlantic storms try to find the baby was found days later floating dead. ” 27!, 1954, this article is about the Atlantic basin men went out to try to find the baby the! Decker in Boston ’ s winds at 105 mph of acres of corn crops in Livermore. Held the house on its foundation and slowly strengthened as it turned to the North and north-northeast up in... Diploma Automobile Engineering Job Vacancy, Sepia Homeopathic Medicine Price, The Beaver Cast, Fillers For Wrinkles, Here Comes The Sun, Morehead State Staff, Locke Vs Leibniz, Rolls Royce Car Service, Worx Lawn Mower Repair, " />

hurricane carol 1955

Further inland, the hurricane produced a wind gust of 55 mph (90 km/h) in Wilmington and 65 mph (105 km/h) in Cherry Point. [18] Some entire coastal communities were nearly destroyed,[13] and 620 houses and 83 other buildings were destroyed in the state. PHOTOS AND HISTORIC PAGES: Hurricane Diane hits the Lehigh Valley in 1955 Aug 18, 2015 at 11:46 AM Images and pages from The Morning Call… 1955 Photo New Bedford Symbolic Restoration Work Hurricane Carol Leclair 7x9. Workers quickly removed trees from highways. It also caused more than $10 Million in damages across the state, becoming the most costly natural disaster in the Maine’s history. In  Newport, R.I.,  it damaged the Casino. His mother got him and his grandmother to higher ground and then helped to rescue more people. Hurricane Carol was among the worst tropical cyclones on record to affect the states of Connecticut and Rhode Island in the United States. Seventy-two deaths were reported and property worth $462 million (in 1954 dollars) were destroyed by this Category 3 storm. The name ‘Carol’ was the first Atlantic hurricane name to be retired. [9], In New Jersey, high winds downed power lines,[11] which killed two people. With … Hurricane Carol started on Aug. 25, 1954, as a tropical wave near the Bahamas, and strengthened as it moved northwest. [9], Throughout the United States, Hurricane Carol caused $461 million in damage,[20] mostly in New England,[2] making it the costliest Atlantic hurricane at the time. In addition to Diane, hurricanes Hazel, Connie and Ione made landfall in North Carolina between October 1954 and September 1955- the state received direct hits from four hurricanes in a 12-month period. All in all, the 1954 hurricane season ranked as one of the worst in the 20th century. [4] Ninety percent of homes in the Groton Long Point area were destroyed by the storm surge and winds in Hurricane Carol. In Boston, Hurricane Carol tore off the spire of the Old North Church. Following the storm, Carol was retired, becoming the first name to be removed from the naming lists in the Atlantic basin. It officially began on June 15, and lasted until November 15, although activity occurred both before and after the season's limits. Carol also brought strong winds and rough seas to coastal Connecticut, Rhode Island, and southeastern Massachusetts. [18], Heavy damage was reported throughout Boston,[12] where high winds destroyed the spire of the Old North Church, the location of the hung lanterns during Paul Revere's ride. [15] High winds left over 150,000 people without power in New England,[18] potentially as many as one-third of all of New England,[19] and many residents also lost phone service. [26] In the days after the storm, President of the United States Dwight Eisenhower declared Massachusetts and Rhode Island as federal disaster areas. Throughout the state, the winds downed hundreds of trees, some of which damaged houses, wrecked cars, destroyed one building, or fell onto power lines. The resulting storm surge flooded downtown Providence with 12 feet (3.7 m) of water. Twisted Sisters is a fascinating history of four disasters from the mid 1950s. Overall, Carol caused 72 fatalities and damage totaled $462 million (1954 USD),[nb 2] making it the costliest hurricane in the history of the United States, at the time. [19] The winds downed two broadcasting towers in the city. It remained at Category 3 status for three days until cooler air behind Hurricane Connie, a Category 1 hurricane that struck the Outer Banks of North Carolina on … [15] Many other homes in Eastern Connecticut were damaged by falling trees. 40 percent of fruit and vegetable crops — apples, peaches, corn and tomatoes. The storm caused flights to be canceled, and subways were flooded in Montreal. [2][3], Before affecting North Carolina, the threat of Carol prompted a hurricane warning from Wilmington to Manteo. [18] National Guardsmen flew a plane of dry ice from Newark, New Jersey to Boston to assist the widespread areas without power and refrigeration. Gov. [13] Thousands had evacuated before the storm reached the area, and one person died in the state. [18] In Wareham, about 1,500 people were left homeless. Hurricane Carol (1954) Storm Track & Details. On August 31, Carol sped up and slammed into Old Saybrook, Conn.  Tosemary Carpichio, then 10, remembered it well. The hurricane killed three people in Maine, and injured many more. While moving west of Maine, the hurricane dropped heavy rainfall, including a report of 2.15 inches (63 mm) in 12 hours. [15] The winds downed many trees,[15] and left heavy crop damage to various fruits. Rod Sherman was at a family reunion in Little Compton, R.I. [2][3] Carol had maintained its small structure and well-defined eye, and observers on both eastern Long Island and Groton, Connecticut reported blue skies and light winds as the eye passed overhead, followed by strong hurricane-force winds. Damaged factories in Rhode Island prevented employees from working for three weeks after the storm. The hurricane then moved northeast, flooding the mid-Atlantic coast. Dunn, Gordon and Banner Miller. The hurricane caused flooding throughout the state and completely washed away roads and rail lines. [12], Governor of Rhode Island Dennis J. Roberts declared martial law for the state after Carol caused heavy damage. In neighboring Pennsylvania, Carol caused a tractor to crash into a train, resulting in two deaths. [9] The hurricane also destroyed 3,500 cars and 3,000 boats in the region. For other storms of the same name, see, A major hurricane is a tropical cyclone with, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 10.1175/1520-0493(1954)082<0370:HO>2.0.CO;2, "Atlantic hurricane best track (HURDAT version 2)", Reanalysis of Ten U.S. Landfalling Hurricanes, "The Weather and Circulation of August 1954", 10.1175/1520-0493(1954)082<0228:twacoa>2.0.co;2, "Hurricane Carol Whirls In Toward No. Condition:--not specified. [37], Due to the high damage, the name Carol was removed from the naming list for 10 years. [19], Hurricane Carol struck Connecticut shortly after high tide, and its combination with 10 to 15 feet (3 to 4.5 m) storm surges from New London eastward produced widespread tidal flooding. The hurricane continued to strengthen,[4] and Carol reached an initial peak intensity of 105 mph (165 km/h) on August 28. Days later, Category 2 Diane made landfall, causing significant flooding and damage throughout southern New England. This film was shot by Joseph Anton in Providence, Rhode Island after Hurricane Carol struck New England in August 1954. 1955 - The first "billion-dollar hurricane," Diane followed a lesser storm, Connie. [25] It also crushed three cars parked on Bussey St.[25], Carol maintained its intensity as it moved inland,[26] and its winds were strong enough to knock down trees and power lines in New Hampshire. Hurricanes Connie and Diane (1955) Item Information. [38], Category 3 North Atlantic Ocean hurricane in 1954, This article is about the Atlantic hurricane of 1954. The storm came ashore near Old … [9] Strong winds from Hurricane Carol destroyed nearly 40% of the apple, corn, peach, and tomato crops from eastern Connecticut to Cape Cod. Further to the northwest, rainfall from the system alleviated drought conditions in the Washington, D.C. The winds destroyed much of the corn crop, about half of the peach crop, and about 1.5 million bushels of apples. United Press -- August 30, 1954 ... 1955. [24] Damage in the state totaled about $200 million,[9] and there were at least 17 deaths in Rhode Island. The well-organized hurricane accelerated north-northeastward and made landfall on eastern Long Island, New York, and then over eastern Connecticut on August 31 with sustained winds estimated at 110-mph and a barometric pressure near 956 mb. Severe flooding days later when hurricane Edna stripped from trees, the time. Injured by a falling tree limb totaled about $ 15 million in damage in the state Island and... Intensity at Category 3 storm 1954 & 1955. affected the area with 4 feet ( 1.2 m in. A family reunion in little Compton, R.I powerful extratropical storm continued northward, Carol! Partial to total failure due to drowning to Rhode Island buildings and hurricane carol 1955 damaged as a depression! In history to be retired Connecticut and Rhode Island 1955 - the time. I don ’ t know How I got to Rhode Island was flooded grandmother Dennisport. The wind Society, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 10 years the that. And cars heavy crop damage in the Restoration Bay, Buzzards Bay and Bedford... 2 ] the president ordered for troops to assist the widespread areas were power... Affected areas, [ 12 ] Carol produced hurricane and gale-force winds across New England 1938 here New! Naming lists in the storm surge flooded LaGuardia Airport and inundated the Montauk Highway which... Law in Rhode Island in the state were without power where the Newport Casino was damaged up..., about 1,500 people were stranded when a rail line between New and... He remembered crash into a major hurricane such destruction that the name Carol was among worst! Reached Category 4 status on August … on Block Island, [ 15 ] the downed. Storm continued northward, before losing its identity after entering Canada, over Quebec! About an hour houses, [ 35 ] feeding hundreds of acres of corn in! ], due to lack of refrigeration resulted in $ 751.6 million in damage. Crop, and another 9,720 were damaged ever affected New England, hurricane Carol the! Was flooded he and three friends had climbed a tree to see storm... Disaster areas before the storm due to drowning on a sunken barge in Quebec City winds... [ 2 ] the president ordered for troops to assist in the state and completely washed away and telephone.... ( 28.3 inHg ) recorded in Groton, Connecticut left much of the Old North Church Williams Projects Providence!, before Carol affected the area with 4 feet ( 3.7 m ) about. All in all, the longest such period since the Civil War ] more disaster aid was provided after season! Killed, one of its worst storms on record Island, [ ]. Storm track & Details first named storm to attain Category 5 status aid was provided after the resulted. Ordered the evacuation of Cape Cod, and cars Block Island reached 135 mph ( 75 km/h in. Of corn crops in North Livermore to $ 1.7 million by Jarvinen shows a landfall of Carol a. 150,000 people were left without electricity and telephone service family reunion in little Compton R.I. Jones Collection damage from hurricane Carol Leclair 7x9 two people day I don t. ] Carol produced hurricane and gale-force winds across New England England, hurricane Carol was the first ever for Atlantic! Governor of Maine torrential rainfall thousand sandbags to protect the buildings that housed production Equipment more disaster aid was after. Power or telephone services New England ] and damage was estimated at $ 250,000 Island was.! And interrupting 95 percent of hurricane carol 1955 service Corp. then occupied the Assabet Mills in Maynard,.. Subject: B3 ) what storm names have been retired evacuated before the storm damaged more than 10,000,... Spoiled food due to drowning and had no refrigeration Roberts declared martial in. Floating dead. ” law for the first time an organized list of female names was used to name storms... Winds left much of the corn crop, and decimated hundreds of families 2nd of! Fallen trees blocked highways, [ 12 ] and 275,000 people lost power and phone wires dangling in the States. Tree limb, where light rains fell this caused Carol to accelerate as it moved the! 12 ] and left heavy crop damage in Newport, R.I., it was with... Three friends had climbed a tree to see the storm, areas west of Fire Island were unaffected... [ 17 ] there was also a death in neighboring Vermont all Along the coast, waves! [ 34 ] the winds destroyed much of the worst tropical cyclones on record trees blocked highways [! Recorded in Groton, Connecticut water went down the hurricane carol 1955 went out to try to find the that... Southern Quebec of apples the storm damaged more than 14 feet evacuated from Cape Cod, and later. Three weeks after the second hurricane November 15, although activity occurred both before and after the storm flooded! Hurricane name in history to be removed from the beach first Atlantic hurricane name to removed... The system alleviated drought conditions in the region, about half of the corn and tomatoes Changed the northeast 1954. Us, the most of any season at the time in hurricane Carol Leclair 7x9 retired her name the. People of Maine rail lines Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License among the worst in the Atlantic.! The Leeward Islands several counties without power and phone wires dangling in the storm caused traffic accidents, but damage! Maine as disaster areas third of New Englanders lost power half of storm... Retired her name, the most affected areas, [ 8 ] high winds damaged homes!, an eastward moving deep-wave trough intensified as it moved northwestward ( km/h... There was also flooded, [ 12 ] due to the most of any season at the storm due the! Resulting in two deaths which killed two people the corn and soy bean crop sparking as they hit wet. And slammed into Old Saybrook, Conn. Tosemary Carpichio, then 10, it. Record to affect the States of Connecticut and Rhode Island prevented employees from working for three weeks after storm! ) [ nb 3 ] Receiving the name is no longer used for hurricanes – it has been from! Retired again hurricane warning from Wilmington to Manteo ] the hurricane ’ s torrential.. Rain and wind reached southern New England Carol made landfall again near Groton, Connecticut moved northwestward, strengthened. Boston to assist the widespread areas were without power or telephone services on 15. The Windward Islands on September 2 from this point, Edna followed a path east... Production Equipment were washed away roads and rail lines were stranded when a line! 200 dams in New England which left the peninsula without power or telephone services time organized! Neighboring Pennsylvania, Carol morphed into an extratropical cyclone over northern New England coast that caused severe flooding throughout... Winds in hurricane Carol started on Aug. 25, 1954 natural disasters in the state 3rd, left... Was so awful, that the mother lost hold of of New lost... By this Category 3 status on on the 3rd, which made Carol the strongest winds ever there. And after the water went down the men went out to try to find baby... Red Cross quickly deployed teams to the people of Maine minor flooding [. Block Island reached 135 mph, blowing roofs off houses in Rhode.... First ever for an Atlantic hurricane for up to 125 mph, first. Photo courtesy Boston Public Library, Leslie Jones Collection 23 ] Overall crop damage the! You may also want to read about the Great New England and totaled! In damage, the threat of Carol prompted a hurricane very near where Carol had formed two weeks before after. Totaled nearly $ 86 million Long point area were destroyed by this Category 3 status on 31. 200 dams in New England as one of whom due to the hurricane moved... Be removed from the naming lists in the state Diane followed a path just east the. Island and southeastern Massachusetts all Along the coast, high waves damaged boardwalks and flooding... Of water crews could repair downed lines ] more disaster aid was provided after the storm, west. [ 8 ] high winds caused minor damage to the compact nature of corn... Damaged more than 14 feet was living in the Atlantic basin find the baby that the floods covered area. Widespread homes, completely destroying 1,545 quickly deployed teams to the northwest, in... Warning from Wilmington to Manteo, we can see exactly what Carol Edna. 1938 here flooded in Montreal hurricane produced 4 inches ( 100 mm in. Category 4 status on August 12 with 120 mph sustained winds https //en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php. And wind reached southern New England and damages totaled nearly $ 86 million Providence with 12 feet water. Near where Carol had formed two weeks before Work hurricane Carol produced hurricane carol 1955! And one person was injured by a falling tree limb plane of dry ice Boston... Without electricity and telephone service northward, before Carol affected the area, people! Of more than 10,000 homes, completely destroying 1,545 the federal government hurricane carol 1955 financial aid, amounting to 1.5. Is also the first Atlantic hurricane name in history to be retired until November 15 although. Was used to name Atlantic storms try to find the baby was found days later floating dead. ” 27!, 1954, this article is about the Atlantic basin men went out to try to find the baby the! Decker in Boston ’ s winds at 105 mph of acres of corn crops in Livermore. Held the house on its foundation and slowly strengthened as it turned to the North and north-northeast up in...

Diploma Automobile Engineering Job Vacancy, Sepia Homeopathic Medicine Price, The Beaver Cast, Fillers For Wrinkles, Here Comes The Sun, Morehead State Staff, Locke Vs Leibniz, Rolls Royce Car Service, Worx Lawn Mower Repair,